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  Home > Package of Practices > Brinjal
 Package of Practises
cauliflower guava mango okra
Banana Brinjal Cabbage Cauliflower   Guava Mango Okra Tomato


Brinjal is one of the most commonly grown vegetable crop of the country. India produces about 7.676 M mt of brinjal from an area of 0.472 M ha with an average productivity of 16.3 mt/ha. The brinjal producing states are Orissa, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. In West Bengal brinjal is grown in 0.140 M ha area with the production of 2.388 M mt and productivity of 17.0 mt/ha. The major brinjal producing belts in West Bengal are Hoogly, 24-Paraganas and Burdwan. Brinjal has ayurvedic medicinal properties and white brinjal is good for diabetic patients. It is also a source of vitamins A, C and minerals.
  Crop varieties  
The Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) plant belongs to the family Solanaceae. The commonly cultivated varieties are Nichindapur barrot, Pant Rituraj, Mukatakeshi, Pusa Kranti, Arka Sheel, and Arka Navneet (F1).
  Conventional practices  
Generally farmers grow local varieties and use check basin method of irrigation. Standard practices of nutrient application and plant protection are rarely adopted.
  Suitable agro climatic conditions  
Brinjal requires a long warm growing season. Daily mean temperature in the range of 130 C to 210 C is favourable for its successful production. Special care is required to protect the crop from frost.
  Suitable soils  
A well-drained fertile soil is desirable for the brinjal crop. It is a hardy plant and may be grown on different soils. However, it grows best on soils with silt loam and clay loam texture. Sandy or sandy loam soil is preferred for the early crop.
  Preparation of land  
The soil is deep ploughed and leveled by planking. FYM is mixed with the soil at the time of field preparation. All the weeds should be cleaned. Proper drainage is essential for development of crop.
  Soil sterilization  
The sterilization of the soil can be achieved by both physical and chemical means. Physical control measures include treatments with steam and solar energy. Chemical control methods include treatments with herbicides and fumigants. Soil sterilization can also be achieved by using transparent plastic mulch film, which is termed as soil solarization. During soil solarization, the incoming solar radiation penetrates the transparent plastic film and is absorbed in the soil. The absorbed radiation converts into heat energy, which raises the soil temperature and kills many soil-borne organisms including plant pathogens and pests.
Planting of brinjal is done at the end of April, end of July and end of September. Brinjal seeds are sown in rows 5 cm apart on 6-12 mm raised nursery beds. The nursery bed is covered with plastic or straw mulch till seeds germinate. Poly-house may be utilized to provide favourable micro climatic conditions to raise nursery. The seedlings of 4 to 6 weeks old are transplanted in a well-prepared field of which the surface soil is mixed thoroughly with FYM and a small quantity of super phosphate. The planting distance depends on soil fertility, season and variety. Usually, for the bushy, non-spreading type variety, the spacing should be 50 to 60 cm from row to row and from plant to plant. However, for spreading type varieties, the row-to-row distance should be 75 to 90 cm and plant-to-plant distance of 60-70 cm.
  Drip system requirement  
  Area : 1 ha, Planting geometry: 75cm x 60cm  
  Variable items : 75 mm & PVC/HDPE pipe-54 m, 75 mm & PVC/HDPE pipe-102 m, 12 mm & LLDPE Lateral-6700 m, Online drippers (2 l/h- 5628 Nos., Control valve -2 Nos., Flush valve -2 Nos. and Tees/bends-1 No. Accessories.  
  Fixed items : Screen filter (15m3/h)-1 No., Bypass assembly -1 No., Fertilizer applicator-1 No., Accessories.  
  Irrigation scheduling  
  The crop requires adequate moisture during the initial 70 days of its growing season. It can withstand drought in the later part of the growing season. Drip irrigation is ideal for the irrigation of brinjal crop. The daily water requirement of one plant is 0.75 liter at the initial growth stage and 3.25 liters at the peak growth stage. This water requirement of brinjal can be met by applying irrigation on alternate days or at 3 days interval with drip.  
  Advantages of drip irrigation  
  Saves water.  
  Enhances plant growth and yield.  
  Saves energy and labour.  
  Most suited for soils having low water holding capacity on undulating terrain.  
  Reduces weed growth.  
  Improves fertilizer application efficiency.  
  Improves quality of produce.  
  Reduces salt concentration in the root zone.  
  Application of fertilizers  
  Application of 25 t/ha FYM along with 60 kg/ha each of P2O5 and K2O has been recommended. Nitrogen is applied @ 100 kg/ha in 5 to 6 split doses during the crop growing season through fertigation.  
  Weed control  
  Hand weeding and hoeing are done to control weeds. Black plastic mulch is also an effective method to control weeds. Black polythene mulch prevents entry of light, which restricts germination of weed seeds and growth.  
  Plant protection  
  The control measures of the main pests and diseases of brinjal are described below –  
  Shoot and Fruit Borer: This is the most serious pest of brinjal. In the initial stages it attacks the terminal shoots and bores inside. Later, it also bores into the young fruits as soon as fruits start setting. This can be controlled by spraying of 20 % Lindane.  
  Damping off: This disease which is caused by soil borne Phytophthora or Pythium species occurs generally during the nursery stage. The affected seedlings dry up at the ground level and topple over. This can be controlled by sterilization of the nursery bed soil and treating the seeds with fungicide before sowing.  
  Wilt: This is caused by fungi and characterized by yellowing of the foliage. The lower leaves turn yellow and then brown between the veins. The control measures include use of resistant varieties, long crop rotations and periodic spraying of fungicide.  
  Harvesting, yield and quality control  
  Brinjal is harvested when it attains good size and colour. The surface of fruit should not lose its brightness and glossy colour. A short piece of the stalk is left attached to the fruit. The average yield varies from 45 to 50 t/ha.  
  Post harvest handling and storage  
  The Indian Standards Institution has recommended three grades of brinjal. Viz; Super, Fancy and Commercial. The harvested fruits can be kept for 7 to 10 days in good condition at 100 to 130 C temperature and 85 to 90 % relative humidity.  
  Cost economics  
  Area : 1 ha, Planting geometry 75cm x 60cm.  
  Fixed cost of drip system : Rs. 75,263  
  Rate of interest : 10.5%  
  Life of drip system : 7.5 years  
  Annual cost of drip system : Rs. 10,822  
  Cost of cultivation : Rs. 12,750  
  Expected yield : 47 t/ha  
  Expected Benefit-Cost ratio : 3.2  
  Dr. K. N. Tiwari
Professor & Principal Investigator
Precision Farming Development Centre
Agricultural & Food Engineering Department
IIT Kharagpur (W.B.) 721 302
Tel: 03222-283150 (O)/ 283151 (R)
Fax: 03222-282244 / 255303 (O)
  Email: kamlesh@agfe.iitkgp.ernet.in,
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