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  Home > Package of Practices > Brinjal
 Package of Practises
bannana
brinjal
cabbage
cauliflower guava mango okra
tomato
Banana Brinjal Cabbage Cauliflower   Guava Mango Okra Tomato

 

MANGO
 
  Introduction  
 
Mango is one of the most important fruits of India. It is the choicest fruit and often known as the king of fruits. It is grown in 39.16 per cent of the total area under fruits and contributes to 23.09 percent of the total fruit production in the country. The state Andhra Pradesh ranks first with respect to area and production. However, the state Karnataka has the highest productivity. In West Bengal, it covers an area of 62,500 ha with the average production of 0.380 mt and productivity of 6.1 mt/ha. Mango is a rich source of vitamin A and has a fairly good content of vitamin C. It also contains a good amount of minerals particularly potassium. Mango fruits are used for preparation of pickle, chatani, amchur, jam, squash, nectar and many other delicious products.
 
 
  Crop varieties  
 
Mango (Mangifera indiaca L.) belongs to family Anacardiaceae. In India, more than thousand varieties are grown in different parts of the country. Most of the commercial cultivars are characteristically specific to geographical adoptation and their performance is satisfactory in a particular region. Therefore, selection of varieties for cultivation of mango should be based on their suitability for a particular region. In West Bengal, Fazli, Gulabkhas, Himsagar, Kishenbhog, Langra and Bombay Green varieties are cultivated. Some hybrids like Amrapali, Mallika and Pairy, Suvarnarekha also perform well in most of the parts of the West Bengal.
 
 
 
  Conventional practices  
 
In most places local varieties are cultivated. Fertilization, irrigation, weeding and hoeing are not practiced after the plants attain maturity. Few farmers use Ring basin method of surface irrigation and broadcasting method of fertilizer application. Plant protection measures are rarely adopted.
 
 
 
  Suitable agro climatic conditions  
 
Mango thrives well in tropical and sub-tropical climates. The ideal temperature for the crop ranges from 240 to 300 C along with high humidity. Temperature below 100 C and above 420 C retards growth and adversely affects the flowering time of mango. A cool and dry period, which slows or stops the growth, is essential for flower induction. Rainfall during the flowering period adversely affects the fruit setting. Fog and cloudy weather at the time of flowering from November to February also result in poor setting of fruits and favours the pest attack and diseases.
 
 
 
  Suitable soils  
 
Mango can be grown on a wide range of soils. However, deep (1.75 to 2.0 m) and well drained soils are favourable for its cultivation. The favourable soil pH varies from 5.5 to 7.5.
 
 
 
  Preparation of land  
 
The selected land is leveled and 75 to 100 cm deep pits are dug during summer months. The pit is exposed for 2 to 4 weeks to kill the harmful soil organisms for the healthy development of the plants.
 
 
 
  Soil sterilization  
 
The sterilization of the soil can be achieved by both physical and chemical means. Physical control measures include treatments with steam and solar energy. Chemical control methods include treatments with herbicides and fumigants. Soil sterilization can also be achieved by using transparent plastic mulch film, which is termed as soil solarization. During soil solarization, the incoming solar radiation penetrates the transparent plastic film and is absorbed in the soil. The absorbed radiation converts into heat energy, which raises the soil temperature and kills many soil-borne organisms including plant pathogens and pests.
 
 
 
  Planting  
 
The pits dug during summer are filled with 20-25 kg of well decomposed FYM. All the sides of the pit walls are treated with fungicide and also mixed with the soil to control termite attack. The planting distance depends on the vigor of the cultivar and location, varies from 4 m to 10 m. The hybrid varieties of mango can be grown on high plant density with spacing as close as 4 m x 4 m. The best time of planting is during monsoon months or at the end of monsoon.
 
 
 
  Drip system requirements  
 
Area: 1 ha, Planting geometry: 5 m x 5 m.
Variable items: 63 mm ? PVC/HDPE pipe-102 m, 12mm ? LDPE Lateral-2000 m, Online drippers (8 l/h)-800 Nos., Control valve-2 Nos., Flush valve-2 Nos., Tees/bends-1 No., Accessories.
Fixed items: Screen filter (15m3/ h)-1 No.,
Bypass assembly-1 No., Fertilizer applicator- 1 No., Accessories.
 
 
 
  Irrigation scheduling  
 
The daily water requirement of mango varies from 28 to 85 l/d/plant. The total annual water requirement of the crop is 6400 m3/ha for the planting geometry of 5 m x 5 m. Soil moisture stress from end November to end January is recommended for good flowering. Regular irrigation during fruit setting and development period reduces fruits drop considerably.
 
 
 
  Advantages of drip irrigation  
  Saves water.
Enhances plant growth and yield.
Saves energy and labour.
Most suited for soil having low water holding capacity and undulating terrain.
Reduces weed growth.
Improves fertilizer application efficiency.
Improves quality of produce.
Reduces salt concentration in the root zone
 
 
 
  Application of fertilizers  
 
Phosphorus should be applied twice a year i.e. at the beginning (June-July) and end (September-October) of monsoon season. Nitrogenous and potassic fertilizers are usually applied in split doses in June-July, September-October, January-February and March-April. For adult mango trees (10 years or above) 1 kg N, 1.5 kg P2O5, 1 kg K2O and 100 kg FYM per year should be applied. Application of micronutrients such as Zinc and Boron helps the cell elongation process and increases the total sugar, ascorbic acid and total solid contents of the fruit pulp.
 
 
 
  Weed control  
 
Mango orchard should be completely free from weeds. In order to control weeds, shallow hoeing at quarterly interval should be done. Black plastic mulch should be used to restrict the germination of weed seeds and suppression of weed growth
 
 
 
  Intercropping  
 
In the initial four years the mango orchard can be intercropped with vegetable species and short duration fruit crops viz; Tomato, Carrot, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Methi, Onion, Ginger, Papaya, Pineapple etc.
 
 
 
  Plant protection  
 

Mango crop suffers seriously from the pests: hopper, mealy bug, fruit fly, shoot and stem borer and stone weevil. The Hoppers are most devasting during flowering period as they suck the sap from tender shoots, leaves and panicles. Spray of 0.05% Carbaryl (Sevin) or 0.04% Monocrotophos (Nuvacron) has been recommended as the protection measure from Hoppers.

Mealy bug sucks the sap and causes drying of plant parts that result in immature fruit drop. Banding of trunk in the month of November-December with slippery bands of polyethylene sheet or application of mixture of grease and coaltar has been recommended. Digging the soil around the mango trunk during hot summer and cleaning of the weeds are recommended as control measures.

Mango aphids do harm mango plants during flowering period. Spray of 0.05% Phosphamidon has been found to be effective for the control of aphids.

Damage by Stem borer is caused by grub of its beetle as it feeds inside the stems, boring upward that result in drying of branches and stem. Application of emulsion of Monocrotophos (0.05%) or DDVP (0.05%) has been recommended as the control measure from the stem borer.

Stone weevils lay eggs on the epicarp of partially developed fruits or under the ring of ripening fruits. Newly emerged grubs of the stem weevils bore through the pulp, feed on the seed coat and subsequently cause damage to cotyledons. Spray of (0.01%) Fenthion concentration has been found effective for the control of stem weevils.

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
  Harvesting, yield and quality control  
 
An average yield of 150-225 marketable fruits (50 kg) per plant per year may be expected from a well grown mango tree. Mature green fruits are harvested with 8-10 mm long stalks to prevent sap burn and undesired spots on the ripened fruits. The best way to decide maturity in mango fruit is the colour of the pulp, which turns cream to light yellow on maturity and hardening of stone.
 
 
 
  Post harvest handling and storage  
 
After harvesting the mango fruits are graded according to their size, weight, colour and maturity. Packaging of fruits should be done in corrugated fiberboard (CFB) boxes. Polyethylene lining has been found beneficial as it maintains humidity, which results in lesser shrinkage during storage. The mature green fruits can be kept at room temperature for 4 to 10 days depending upon the variety. Pre-cooling, chemical treatments, low temperature etc. extend shelf life of fruit. Fruits of Dashahari, Amrapali, Mallika should be stored at 12 oC with relative humidity of 85 to 90%. Dashahari treated with Calcium chloride solution (4%) at sub-atmospheric pressure of 500 mm Hg for 5 minutes can be stored at 12 oC for 27 days.
 
 
 
  Cost economics  
 

Area: 1 ha, Planting geometry: 5 m x 5 m
Fixed cost of drip system: Rs. 30,298
Rate of interest: 10.5%
Life of system: 7.5 Years
Annual cost of drip system: Rs. 8,713
Cost of cultivation: Rs. 24,000
Expected yield: 19 t/ha
Expected Benefit-Cost ratio: 6.0

 


 
 
  Contact Address  
  Dr. K. N. Tiwari
Professor & Principal Investigator
Precision Farming Development Centre
Agricultural & Food Engineering Department
IIT Kharagpur (W.B.) 721 302
Tel: 03222-283150 (O)/ 283151 (R)
Fax: 03222-282244 / 255303 (O)
Email: kamlesh@agfe.iitkgp.ernet.in,
pfdc_kharagpur@yahoo.com
 
 
 
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