Gauva Kharagpur

  Guava is known as the apple of the tropics. It is grown all over the tropics and subtropics. In India it is grown in 0.204 Mha area with a total production of 2.270 Mmt and average productivity of 11.1 mt/ha. Major producing states are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh & Maharashtra. Uttar Pradesh has 0.034 mha under Guava and the total production during 2008-09 is 0.412 Mmt with 12.1 mt/ha productivity. Guava is a rich source of ascorbic acid and protein. The ascorbic acid content of guava varies from 75 to 260 mg/100g depending on cultivar, season, location and stage of maturity. The fruits harvested during winter season are superior in quality in comparison to rainy season fruits. It contains considerable amount of Ca, P and Fe. However, 80 per cent of the iron remains in seed and is not utilizable. Guava fruits are good source of pectin, which ranges from 0.5 to 1.8 per cent.  
  Crop varieties:  
  Guava (Psidium guajava L.) belongs to the family Myrtaceae. Baruipur, KG, L-49 and Allahabad Safeda are commonly grown varieties.  
  Suitable agro climatic conditions:  
  Guava is successfully grown under tropical and subtropical climate. In areas with distinct winter season, the yield increases and the fruit quality also improves. It grows best with an annual rainfall of about 1000 mm restricted between June and September.  
  Suitable soils:  
  Guava tree is hardy and can thrive on all soils ranging from alluvial to laterite, except the waterlogged soil. The best soils are deep, friable and well-drained with a pH between 5.5 and 7.5.  
  Preparation of land:  
  The selected field should be deeply ploughed, harrowed and leveled before planting. Pits of 1 m3 size should be dug and filled with surface soil mixed with 25 to 30 kg compost.  
  Soil sterilization:  
  The sterilization of the soil can be achieved by both physical and chemical means. Physical control measures include treatments with steam and solar energy. Chemical control methods include treatments with herbicides and fumigants. Soil sterilization can also be achieved by using transparent plastic mulch film (150 micron thickness), which is termed as soil solarization. During soil solarization, the incoming solar radiation penetrates the transparent plastic film and is absorbed in the soil. The absorbed radiation converts into heat energy, which raises the soil temperature and kills many soil-borne organisms including plant pathogens and pests.  
  Planting should be done during June-July before the onset of monsoon rains. Guava is commonly planted in a square geometry at a spacing of 5 m x 5 m or 6 m x 6 m. It can also be planted in hedge-row system at spacing of 6 m x 3 m or 6 m x 2 m. For ultra-high density planting, the row to row distance of 2 m and plant to plant distance of 1 m is followed. However, frequent pruning should be practiced in all cases.  
  Drip system requirements:  
Area 1 ha
Planting geometry 5 m x 5 m
Variable items

63 mm F PVC/HDPE pipe-102 m, 12mm F LDPE lateral pipe-2000 m, Online dripper (8 l/h)-800 Nos., Control valve-2 Nos., Flush valve -

2 Nos., Tees/bends-1 No., Accessories
Fixed items Screen filter (15m3/ h)-1 No., Bypass assembly-1 No., Fertilizer applicator-1 No., Accessories
  Irrigation scheduling:  
  The daily water requirement of guava varies from 15.6 to 61.0 l/d/plant respectively in the month of December and April. The annual water requirement of guava grown at the spacing of 5 m x 5.5 m is 3854 m3/ha. Drip irrigation on alternate or 2-days interval is recommended.  
  Application of fertilizers:  
  In the first year after planting 260g Urea, 375g single supper phosphate and 100 g Muriate of Potash is applied along with 50 kg FYM for each plant. This dose is increased every year up to 5 years in the multiplication of first year's dose, along with 50 kg FYM. This mixture of fertilizers should be applied in four to five split doses between June and September along with drip irrigation in the periphery of each tree.  
  Weed control:  
  Weeding is an important practice to reduce the losses of fertilizer and moisture from the plant basin. Mulching conserves soil moisture by reducing evaporation losses. Black plastic mulch (150 micron thickness) checks the weed growth.  
  In the early stages of establishment of guava orchard, the inter-space between guava plants can be utilized by growing vegetables and other crops like pineapple, peas, gram, beans etc. When the guava trees are fully grown, intercropping with shade loving plants such as ginger, turmeric etc. can be practiced to utilize the land efficiently.  
  Plant protection:  
  The particulars of major pests and diseases of guava and their control measures are described below.
Guava Fruit Fly: During monsoon season, the adult lays eggs on the surface of the fruits. On hatching the maggots enter into the fruits and cause fruit drop. Plucking and burning of all affected fruits are generally recommended. The soil around the tree should be raked during summer months and spray of Malathion 0.05% solution should be applied as control measures.
  Mealy Bug:  
  Mealy bugs suck sap from young leaves, twigs and flowers. The affected plants dry up and the yield is considerably reduced. In order to control mealy bug the tree should be banded with polyethylene so that the nymphs are prevented from climbing up from the soil surface and spray of 0.1% Metacid is recommended as a control measure.
  Guava Wilt:  
  Guava wilt is caused by fungi. The affected plants show yellowing of leaves followed by drying of leaves and twigs from the tip and finally wilting of the whole tree. As control measures: a) 15 g of Bavistine should be applied at the basin of each plant after pruning in the month of March, June and September, b) the balance nutrients specially nitrogen should be applied and c) resistant varieties should be grown.  
  Harvesting, yield and quality control:  
  After 2 years of planting guava crop starts yielding. It is harvested twice in a year, first between August and September and again between the month of December and February. The guava fruit should be picked immediately when it is mature, because it cannot be retained on the tree till the ripening stage. Individual hand picking at regular intervals is recommended. The guava yield ranges from 10 to 11.25 mt/ha. The fruits produced during winter are excellent in quality.  
  Post harvest handling and storage:  
  Guava has a short shelf life but it can be stored for few weeks at temperatures below 8 to 10oC. Storage under modified atmosphere, in poly bags has been found effective in extending the shelf life of guava.  
  Cost economics:  
Area 1 ha
Planting geometry 5 m x 5 m
Fixed cost of drip system Rs. 30,298
Rate of interest 10.5%q
Life of system 7.5 years
Annual cost of drip system Rs. 8,713
Cost of cultivation Rs. 21,500
Expected yield 24 t/ha
Expected Benefit-Cost ratio 2.5
  For more information, kindly Contact  
  Professor & Principal Investigator  
  Precision Farming Development Centre  
  Agricultural & Food Engineering Department, IIT Kharagpur (W.B.) 721 302